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The subject of physical exercise and fertility has been widely debated, without unanimous results among the various authors. However, it is globally recognized that moderate exercise is beneficial for improving fertility in all women. Intense exercise can improve fertility in obese women, but it can be harmful in women of normal weight.
There is clear and solid scientific evidence of the damaging effects of obesity on both female and male fertility. This effect also occurs in pregnancy and neonatal prognosis.
The impact of stress on fertility is not so clear. Researchers don’t understand the role it plays in fertility as women can get pregnant in situations of intense stress. More recognised are the positive effects of stress-reducing factors, such as exercise and relaxation practices in helping to overcome infertility.
Yes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a sexually transmitted disease that affects fertility. It derives from a Chlamydia or gonorrhoea infection, mostly asymptomatic, which in 10-15% of cases causes permanent damage to the upper genital tract: uterus, fallopian tubes and pelvic cavity, with corresponding infertility.
There is no “magic” food for fertilization / implantation. In general, in the preconceived stage, as well as in pregnancy, a woman should eat a balanced diet. You should eat plenty of fruits and vegetables, rich in antioxidants that improve egg quality, provide a good supply of fibre and carbohydrate and protein complexes.
It is also important to supplement calcium and other vitamins and minerals, with a special focus on omega-3s.
Don’t forget a good hydration.
True. Currently available reversible methods of contraception are safe in preventing pregnancy while being used, and have no long-term effect on reproductive capacity when abandoned. Therefore, it is easy to understand that some situations of occasional forgetting of oral contraceptives (the pill) result in an unwanted pregnancy.
Several scientific studies, with a large number of participants, showed that the likelihood of getting pregnant after one month and one year was identical in women using the pill and IUD compared to those using natural contraceptive methods (calendar method).
False. As described above, ovarian aging is a continuous process that begins at birth and extends to menopause, resulting in the progressive depletion of the follicular pool. The age of the woman is, therefore, the primary factor in determining fertility, with the peak at 25 years and a subsequent gradual decline, very marked after the age of 35. This decline in fertility with age is also accompanied by an increase in the rates of chromosomal abnormalities of the product of conception, with a corresponding increase in the number of miscarriages.
Translated into numbers, it means that the probability of a 30-year-old woman becoming pregnant per month is about 20-25%, which drops to less than 5% at 40, being virtually nil after 45 years.
No. Experts say sperm can be cryopreserved for many, many years (at -196 ° C) without losing its ability to fertilize after thawing. This ability is an undeniable and extremely important advantage in cases of cryopreservation for oncological causes, particularly at a young age.
In some countries, sperm cryopreservation time is determined solely by legal guidelines.
Infertility treatment depends on multiple factors: the cause and duration of infertility, the age of the woman, the existence of previous treatments and also the preference of the couple. We must not forget that infertility treatment involves a huge physical, psychological, financial and time commitment on the part of the couple, so they must be involved in their decision.
The treatment option must always be personalized. Although in some situations it is possible to achieve pregnancy with simple medical therapies, in others it is necessary to resort to surgical treatments or medically assisted procreation. In these, IVF offers the best pregnancy rates.
No. Artificial insemination is a simpler first-line treatment, which consists of introducing previously prepared sperm into the woman’s uterus, after stimulation of ovulation, with an average success rate of 10 to 12%.
In vitro fertilization is a second-line, more complex treatment, which includes four phases: controlled stimulation of the ovaries, follicular puncture, laboratory technique (manipulation of oocytes and sperm) and embryo transfer, with an average success rate of 30 to 35%.
It should be noted that the success rates associated with these treatments are very clearly related to the age of the woman, with marked reductions with advancing age, which can reach 5-10% in women around 40 years of age.
False. Taking into account the natural fertility rate – the likelihood of becoming pregnant during the menstrual cycle – and its marked reduction with age, fertility treatment does not result in pregnancy in many situations.
The maximum pregnancy rate is obtained in in vitro fertilization treatments using donor oocytes, in which it is around 60%.
False. Sexual activity is safe during ovarian stimulation in insemination or in vitro fertilization treatments. However, it can become slightly uncomfortable as the ovaries enlarge with multi-follicular development.
Sexual abstinence is recommended only in the two or three days prior to the collection of sperm to perform the PMA technique (insemination or in vitro fertilization) and after the embryo transfer, until the pregnancy test is performed.
False. The incidence of multiple pregnancies, considered one of the iatrogenic complications of fertility treatments, has declined in recent years thanks to the growing trend towards elective single embryo transfer.
Most multiple pregnancies result from ovulation induction treatments, scheduled, uncontrolled intercourse, and intrauterine inseminations.
False. There are situations where it is not possible to reverse or treat the cause of infertility, for example: congenital malformations of the reproductive system (absence of uterus or ovaries), premature menopause, inability to produce sperm, among others.
In some of these situations, pregnancy is possible with the use of medically assisted procreation techniques, such as replacement pregnancy and the use of donor gametes.